Welcome to the Environmental turbulence analysis littera Lab!

The Et al. lab focuses on understanding the role of fluid mechanics in environmental processes. We are particularly interested in turbulent transport between buildings, forest, costal vegetation, and particle/droplet laden flows. We employ and further develop experimental techniques to study turbulent flows in these complex geometries.

Et al. stands for Environmental turbulence analysis littera, which means the study of the effects of turbulence on environmental flows with careful and detailed experimentations and analysis to advance our design capabilities in engineering. The abbreviation et al. means and others and is often used to cite collaborative work in scientific journals. The adoption of this name reflects our philosophy that science is a collaborative endeavor and benefits from different perspectives, viewing angles and inclusion.

Physics of Turbulence

Turbulence is the most important unsolved problem of classical physics - Richard Feynman

Experimental Fluid Mechanics

Environmental Fluid Systems

Principal Investigator


Chris CK Lai

Assistant Professor

Experimental Fluid Mechanics, Turbulent Mixing and Transport, Turbulence Theory and Modeling



Multibody turbulent flow

Production of turbulence in an array of spheres with relative motions– air-water flows.

Stratified turbulence

Mixing and scale interactions in stratified turbulence– improving turbulence models and estimates of oceanic mixing efficiency.

Turbulent flow in porous media

Turbulent-laminar flow transitions in porous media– solute transport in river and groundwater.

Recent Publications

Mean velocity, spreading and entrainment characteristics of weak bubble plumes in unstratified and stationary water

In this paper we present an experimental and theoretical study of weak bubble plumes in unstratified and stationary water. We define a …

The turbulent kinetic energy budget in a bubble plume

We present the turbulent kinetic energy (t.k.e.) budget of a dilute bubble plume in its asymptotic state. The budget is derived from an …

Budgets of turbulent kinetic energy, Reynolds stresses, and dissipation in a turbulent round jet discharged into a stagnant ambient

This paper presents a set of stereoscopic particle image velocimetry (SPIV) measurements of a turbulent round water jet (jet exit …

Energy cascade in a homogeneous swarm of bubbles rising in a vertical channel

We perform direct numerical simulations (DNS) of millimeter-size air bubbles risingin a vertical water channel. Our objective is to …

Behavior and dynamics of bubble breakup in gas pipeline leaks and accidental subsea oil well blowouts

Subsea oil well blowouts and pipeline leaks release oil and gas to the environment through vigorous jets. Predicting the breakup of the …


CEE 6261. Environmental Fluid Mechanics. 3 Credit Hours.

Dynamics, mixing, and contaminant transport in surface water bodies, including lakes, rivers, estuaries, and coastal waters. Introduction to numerical models. Prediction of mixing zones.

Lab News


Et al. lab starts

School of Civil and Environmental Enginnering at Georgia Tech

Nov 2019 – Present


  • chrislck@gatech.edu
  • Mason Building, 790 Atlantic Dr, Atlanta, GA 30332
  • Chris Lai’s office is at Mason 2223